Travels in Algeria, by Alexis de Tocqueville


Two narratives describing the effects of colonialism and revolution when imposed on an unwilling people. The twin impulses to stay and fight, or to flee and preserve, and how it seizes suddenly whole populations of people and subjects them at once to violence and anarchy. Together, both are intended to provide a holistic view of the experiences, the aspirations, the quiet sufferings, and the triumphs of different populations living on the periphery of colonial societies. .

Travels in Algeria

Suppose that the Emperor of China, landing in France at the head of an armed power, should make himself master of our largest cities and of our capital. That after having burned all the public registers before suffering to read them, and having destroyed or dispersed all of the civil service without inquiring into their various attributions, he should finally seize every functionary from the head of the government to the campesino guards, the peers, the deputies, and in general the whole ruling class and deport them all at once to some distant country . . .

As a member of the French Parliament, Alexis Tocqueville took it upon himself to become France’s foremost expert on the Algerian question. To this end, he studied the history and people of Algeria, visited the country several times, and undertook a study of both the Islamic religion and Arab language.

Although extremely critical of the invasion of Algeria, Tocqueville was equally critical of squandering France’s new colonial opportunity, and advocates for a program of domination and colonization, or simultaneous warfare against the native population while also pursuing limited colonization in key cities and regions. In a series of letters and reports to the French Establishment, Tocqueville describes a sort of conceptual travelogue, describing first a brief outline the of the country, it’s inhabitants, their histories, and then describing more explicitly how France should go about improving her war effort and solidifying her domination of Algeria.

United Empire Loyalists

Originally written by William Stewart Wallace as part of a larger anthology on the history of Canada, The United Empire Loyalists is a scholarly and sentimental account of what happens when revolution forces a body of colonists to leave their homes and livelihoods as refugees in search of safe harbour. In it, we see the first breaths of the Anglo Canadian Nation; not as colonial soldiers or treasure seeking colonists, but as impoverished refugees, seeking refuge from the political currents of their time, and finding it in the quiet forest paths of Canada. It is a catalog of failures and defeats, as settlers and first nations tribes alike try to prevent the outward push of American expansion, but it is not without a happy ending. Like the Jews fleeing from Egypt, the Anglo Canadians find, after many trials, a home to call their own

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Table of Contents

Travels in Algeria - Alexis de Tocqueville

First Letter (1837)

Second Letter (1837)

Notes on Islam (1839)
Why there is no priesthood among the Muslims.
Islamic justice.
Constitution of justice in Muslim countries and particularly in Algiers.
Guarantees of Islamic law.

Travels in Algeria (1841)
That domination should not be separated from colonization and vice versa.
Total domination and partial colonization.

I — Domination and the means to establish it
That there is no time to lose if we want to destroy the power of Abd-el-Kader.
That one should not yet despair of destroying Abd-el-Kader.
What kind of war we can and should wage against the Arabs.
Ways to wage war more economically and with less loss.
To which officers should the commands be entrusted.

II — Colonization
Should colonization be undertaken before domination is established and the war is over?
In which part of the Regency should we start colonizing?
Material conditions for success.
Sanitation of the plain
Consolidation of property.
Establishment of villages.
It is necessary to make a golden bridge for those who go to Africa.
Of the social and political institutions and the kind of government that would be most likely to produce and secure settlement.

III — Necessary reforms
Modifications to bring to the legislation.
Guarantees to be given to citizens.

Tocqueville's parlimentary report (1847)
Distribution of the indigenous population on the soil; general aspects that it presents from the point of view of our domination.
Independent Kabyles.

Tocqueville's parlimentary report (cont.)
The Tell.
Division of the Tell into two distinct regions.
Why our occupation should not be extended any further.
How we came to know the best means to take to dominate the counrty.
What steps should be taken to gradually reduce the workforce?
Organization of the indigenous government.
What should be the general spirit of our government towards the natives?
We must avoid the two excesses mentioned above.
Public education among the natives.
How we should proceed in respect to the land.
Real estate transactions between Arabs and Europeans should not be free.
What effects can be expected to be be produced on the natives by good government.

United Empire Loyalists - William Stewart Wallace


I Loyalism in the thirteen colonies.

II Persecution of the loyalists.

III The loyalists under arms.

IV Peace without honour.

V The exodus to Nova Scotia.

VI The birth of New Brunswick.

VII In Prince Edward Island.

VIII The Loyalists in Quebec.

IX The western settlements.

X Compensation and honour.

XI The American migration.

XII The loyalists in his new home.

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